Mitral valve Replacement(MVR) Surgery is performed to repair or replace the deceased Mitral valve that is located between the left atrium and the left ventricle.
Some facts about Mitral valve Replacement(MVR) Surgery:
The heart is a pump made of muscle tissue and contain four pumping chambers, including two upper chambers, called atria, and two lower chambers, called ventricles.
Valves between each of the heart's pumping chambers is responsible for keeping the blood flow forward through the heart.
When one or more valves are damaged or diseased and do not work the way they should they may need to be repaired or replaced
Preparation for Mitral valve Replacement(MVR) Surgery:
A complete physical exam will be done along with a complete review of your medical history, to ensure you are in good health before surgery.
Blood tests or other diagnostic tests may also be required before MVR.
You are recommended not eat or drink for 8 hours before the procedure.
Inform your doctor if you are sensitive to or are allergic to any medicines, latex, tape, iodine, or anesthetic agents (local and general).
You should also inform your doctor about all medicines (prescription and over-the-counter), vitamins, herbs, and supplements that you are taking.
Inform your healthcare provider if you have a history of bleeding disorders or if you are taking any anticoagulant (blood-thinning) medicine, aspirin, or other medicines that affect blood clotting as you may need to stop some of these medicines before surgery.
A blood test will be done before surgery to see how long it takes your blood to clot.
Inform your healthcare provider if you have a pacemaker or any other implanted cardiac devices.
Procedure for Mitral valve Replacement(MVR) Surgery:
An intravenous (IV) line will be started in your arm or hand for injection of medicine and to give IV fluids.
Catheters will be put in blood vessels of your neck and wrist to monitor the status of your heart and blood pressure, and to take blood samples.
Your heart rate, blood pressure, breathing, and blood oxygen level will be monitored during the surgery.
A breathing tube will be put through your mouth into your lungs and connect you to a ventilator
A transesophageal echocardiogram (TEE) probe will be placed into your esophagus (swallowing tube) to monitor the function of the valves.
A Foley catheter will be put into your bladder to drain urine.
Also, a tube will be put through your mouth or nose into your stomach to drain stomach fluids.
An incision (cut) will be made down the center of the chest from just below the Adam's apple to just above the navel.
Less invasive procedure may require smaller incisions.
The sternum (breastbone) will be cut in half lengthwise and the halves of the breastbone will be separated and spread apart to expose your heart.
Your heart must be stopped and tubes will be put into the heart so that the blood can be pumped through your body by a heart-lung bypass machine while your heart is stopped.
Your doctor will stop your heart by injecting it with a cold solution once the blood has been completely diverted into the bypass machine for pumping
The diseased valve will be removed when the heart has stopped, and the artificial valve will be put, in the case of a valve replacement.
The procedure done will depend on the type of valve problem you have for a valve repair.
Your doctor will shock your heart with small paddles to restart your heartbeat once the surgery is done
Blood circulating will be allowed through the bypass machine to re-enter your heart and remove the tubes to the machine.
Your doctor will watch your heart to see how well the heart and valves are working and be sure that there are no leaks from the surgery once your heart is beating again.
Wires may be put for pacing into your heart.
These wires can be attached to a pacemaker outside your body for a short time and your heart can be paced, if needed, during the initial recovery period.
The sternum will be rejoined by sewing it together with small wires.
Tubes will be put into your chest to drain blood and other fluids from around the heart.
The skin over the sternum will be sewed back together and the incision will be closed with sutures or surgical staples.