Brain Surgery

Brain Surgery or neurosurgery is a surgical procedures of the brain or structures around it to correct any abnormalities such as tumors or aneurysms.

November 18, 2021

Brain Surgery or neurosurgery is a surgical procedures of the brain or structures around it to correct any abnormalities such as tumors or aneurysms.

Some facts about Brain Surgery:

  • Brain Surgery is a critical procedure and is done by trained neurosurgeons.
  • The types of brain surgery depends on the placement of the structural deviation, the health condition of the individual and the severity of the issue.
  • Brain Surgery can be performed to prevent bleeding inside the brain because of an aneurysm, remove a tumor or  drain an abscess or blood from an injury and remove pressure on the brain.
  • It can also be performed to free a nerve in the brain area that is being pinched.

Conditions that require Brain Surgery:

Brain surgery is performed only in severe conditions which can not be addressed through medication or therapy. Brain Surgery is required for certain structural abnormalities of the brain. These include:

  • Congenital brain defects such as malformation of blood vessel.
  • Internal bleeding in the brain because of an aneurysm.
  • Blood clots and bleeding in the brain can be corrected to prevent further trauma to brain tissue surrounding the problem area.
  • Epidural or subdural abnormalities such as hematomas can be corrected.
  • Edema of the brain in which the fluid will  buildup around the brain causing swelling and recurring headaches and pressure to the brain.
  • Brain tumors, both cancerous and non-cancerous.
  • Certain cases of epilepsy because of an abnormality in the brain structure, or pressure on a nerve.
  • Neuropathic pain, when a nerve between the brain and the spine is damaged due to a stroke, tumor or accident.
  • A brain surgery may be suggested to drain the abscess when certain area of the brain is filled with the infected material because of infection.
  • Parkinson's disease, in which the nervous signals required to control motor function are too weak or abnormal.

Types and Procedure of Brain Surgery:


Biopsy is the removal of a small amount of tissue to be studied for abnormalities to prevent further symptomatic concerns. Tumors or other abnormalities can be detected by a biopsy that is performed during a brain surgery procedure.


A cut has to be made to the scalp bone that exposes the brain tissue in Craniotomy which is also known as open brain surgery. A hole called the bone flap is created and brain surgery procedure such as an aneurysm, or fluid draining, is performed to address the issue. The bone flap will be removed in cases where postoperative swelling is expected or where tumor growth is possible so that further pressure and trauma to the brain can be prevented.


Small holes are made in the cranium and an endoscope is fed through them to guide the brain surgery procedure in Neuroendoscopy. This is a minimal invasive procedure as compared to open brain surgery and the trauma on the health of patient can be reduced while speeding up recovery time. Tumor formations in the brain can be addressed by endoscopic brain surgery. It is is also known as keyhole surgery as the holes made during this type of brain surgery are very small.

Deep Brain stimulation:

Electrodes are placed deep within the brain to stimulate nervous signals ordinarily missing in a patient such as Parkinson's disease, tremors and epilepsy. The neurosurgeon place the electrode leads within the brain tissue during  minimally invasive brain surgery procedures. The electrical impulses will be created by the pulse generator to signal the brain, which is placed in a box device similar to a pacemaker in the chest area

Endonasal endoscopic surgery:

Endonasal endoscopic surgery is a type of brain surgery in which a thin tube carrying an endoscope is passed through the nasal cavity up to the front regions of the brain.  Tumor formation in the frontal regions of the brain as well as the top of the spine can be addressed by using this procedure without brain exposure. Recovery time as well as the risk of infection is less in any endoscopic brain surgery as compared to a traditional one.

Awake brain surgery:

Awake brain surgery is a type of open brain surgery that is performed under local anaesthesia while the patient is awake and responsive. Doctors can note responses of a patient to stimulation of certain areas in the brain during this procedure. The signals for eye movement and vision, speech, motor function and memory can also be checked to ensure that are not impacted during surgery for tumor removal or epilepsy correction.
The surgeon or the nurses will continuously ask you questions about how you feel during awake brain surgery. Generally, they will keep you responsive during the brain surgery procedure so that any inadvertent nerve damage during tissue removal or device placement can be determined. Awake brain surgery is performed in critical conditions in which there is abnormality in an area of the brain that is responsible for critical functions such as movement, speech and vision.

Preparation for Brain Surgery:

  • Several test are performed by doctors to determine if brain surgery can be performed on a patient and the risk for future concerns and assessments that typically occur over 1 to 3 weeks before brain surgery.
  • The doctor will able to decide the type of brain surgery procedure that will be most suitable for the patient and the expected results on brain surgery recovery based on these test.
  • Some of these tests include blood tests, an electro echocardiogram (EEG), X-rays, CT scan and MRI scans.
  • There will be a discussion with your doctor on your medication that you are taking should be continued or stopped prior to the operation.
  • The food allergies should also be discussed to help determine the diet and post-operative medication.
  • all the information about medical history of the patient, family history of blood or brain disorders and alcohol usage should be shared with the neurosurgeon prior to the brain surgery procedure.

Complications and Risks of Brain Surgery:

Bleeding, Allergic reactions, Blood clots, Brain swelling, Coma, Infection, Amnesia, Impairment of bodily functions and Seizures are some of the possible side effect of brain surgery.